Avascular necrosis

Avascular necrosis is the death of bone tissue resulting from a lack of blood supply. Also termed osteonecrosis, it can cause tiny breaks in the bone and the bone's ultimate collapse. A broken bone or dislocated joint can cut off the blood flow to a segment of bone. Long-term usage of high-dose steroid medicines and excessive alcohol use is also linked to avascular necrosis. Anyone can be stricken, but the condition is most popular in people between the ages of 30 and 50.

Many people do not have any symptoms in the primary stages of avascular necrosis. As the state worsens, your stricken joint might hurt only when you put weight on it. In time, you might feel the pain even when you're lying down. Pain can be moderate or intense and normally develops gradually. Pain-related to avascular necrosis of the hip may center on the groin, thigh, or buttock. Besides the hip, the areas liable to be stricken are the shoulder, knee, hand, and foot. Avascular necrosis can occur on both sides of the body (bilaterally), for example, in both hips or knees.
Avascular necrosis takes place when blood flow to a bone is discontinued or reduced. Decreased blood supply can origin from:
  •  Joint or bone trauma -  A displaced joint, for example, can injure adjacent blood vessels.
  • Radiation therapy  - for cancer can weaken bones and cause blood vessel damage.
  •  Fatty deposits in blood vessels - The fat (lipids) might block small blood vessels, lessening the blood flow that feeds bones.
  •  Certain diseases - Sickle cell anemia and Gaucher's disease are two medical diseases that can cause the decreased blood supply to the bones. The cause of stopped blood flow is unknown in roughly 25% of persons with avascular necrosis.
Visit your doctor if you have continual pain in any joint. Look for immediate medical attention if you think you have a broken bone or a dislocated joint.
Risk factors for developing avascular necrosis consist of:
  • Trauma - Injuries, for instance, hip dislocation or fracture, can harm nearby blood vessels and decrease blood flow to bones.
  • Steroid use - The use of high-dose corticosteroids, like prednisone, is a popular cause of avascular necrosis. The reason is not known, but one hypothesis is that corticosteroids can hike lipid levels in your blood, reducing blood flow.
  •  Excessive alcohol use - Intaking many alcoholic drinks a day for several years also can result in fatty deposits forming in your blood vessels.
  •  Bisphosphonate use - Long-term use of medications to raise bone density might contribute to developing osteonecrosis of the jaw. This scarce complication has taken place in some people treated with high doses of these medications for cancers, such as multiple myeloma and metastatic breast cancer.
  • Certain medical treatments - Radiation therapy for cancer can weaken bone. Organ transplantation, particularly kidney transplants, also is connected with avascular necrosis. Medical conditions pertaining to avascular necrosis include:
  •  Pancreatitis
  •  Diabetes
  •  Gaucher's disease
  •  Systemic lupus erythematosus
  •  Sickle cell anemia
Untreated, avascular necrosis aggravates with time. In time, the bone can collapse. Avascular necrosis also drives bone to lose its smooth shape, possibly leading to intense arthritis.
To decrease your risk of avascular necrosis and better your general health:
  • Limit alcohol - Heavy drinking is among the top risk factors for developing avascular necrosis.
  • Keep cholesterol levels low -  Tiny bits of fat are the most popular element blocking the blood supply to bones.
  • Monitor steroid use - Ensure your doctor is aware of your past or present use of high-dose steroids. Repeated rounds of high-dose steroids appear to exacerbate steroid-related bone deterioration.
  • Don't smoke - Smoking increases the risk